Han Chen, head of energy policy in the NRDC`s international agenda, keeps an eye on the whole, while programming for a global energy transition. The origin of the 1.5oC Paris Agreement stems from the concern of vulnerable countries about the negative consequences of a warming of 2oC. In 2014, the UNFCCC established a process to determine whether Cancun`s long-term goal of keeping warming below 2 degrees Celsius is sufficient to avoid dangerous climate change and to consider “strengthening the long-term global goal based on the best available scientific knowledge, including an average global temperature increase of 1.5 degrees Celsius.” This process ended in 2015 with the final report of its scientific arm (Structured Expert Dialogue), which concluded that the use of the global warming limit of 2oC as a “protection barrier” was not safe and that governments should instead aim for 1.5 degrees Celsius. It was found that the 2oC limit was not in line with the convention`s ultimate goal of “preventing dangerous anthropogenic intervention in the climate system.” This was an important contribution to the ongoing negotiations on the Paris Agreement at the time and ultimately led to the long-term goal of the Paris Agreement on temperature in Article 2.1, as described above. Most experts say no. The commitments made by countries are not ambitious enough and are not being implemented quickly enough to limit the increase in global temperature to 1.5 degrees Celsius, or even 2 degrees Celsius. It will also enable the contracting parties to gradually strengthen their contributions to the fight against climate change in order to achieve the long-term objectives of the agreement. The report sums up the expected impact if global temperature reaches this point: the Paris Agreement is the first legally binding universal global agreement on climate change adopted at the Paris climate conference (COP21) in December 2015. The global inventory will begin in 2018 with a “facilitation dialogue.” At this convening, the parties will assess how their NDCs stack up to the short-term goal of the highest global emissions and the long-term goal of achieving zero net emissions by the second half of this century.  [update] Among other things, countries need to report their greenhouse gas inventories and progress against their targets, so that external experts can assess their success.
Countries should also review their commitments by 2020 and present new targets every five years to further reduce emissions.